2020下半年CATTI二口/二笔真题回忆版

二级口译(交传)

真题回忆版

综合

Summary 联合国关于人口报告(老龄化、缺乏年轻劳动力等等)

马斯克的公司

水资源管理

英译汉

第一篇:食品安全

第二篇:新冠疫情

*去污名化

谭德塞关于新冠疫情的讲话

汉译英

第一篇:振兴农村

*生产力不足

*中国政策相关

第二篇:产能过剩

*钢铁煤炭等等产能过剩

二级口译(同传)

真题回忆

英译汉

第一篇:禁烟运动

第二篇:海洋微塑料

汉译英

第一篇:临港自贸区建设

第二篇:新冠疫情

(呼吁G20国家)

二级笔译

真题回忆

英译汉(1)主题:全球经济增速放缓 动力不足

The world is at a social, environmental and economic tipping point. Subdued growth, rising in equalities and accelerating climate change provide the context for a backlash against capitalism, globalization, technology, and elites. There is gridlock in the international governance system and escalating trade and geopolitical tensions arefueling uncertainty. This holds back investment and increases the risk of supply shocks: disruptions to global supply chains, sudden price spikes or interruptions in the availbility of key resources.

Persistent weaknesses in the drivers of productivity growth are among the principal culprits. In advanced, emerging and developing economies, productivity growth started slowing in 2000 and decelerated further after the crisis. Between 2011 and 2016, "total factor productivity growth" - or the combined growth of imputs—grew by 0.3 percent and labour, and outputs - grew by 0.3 percentin advanced economies and 1.3 percent inemerging and developing economies.

The financial crisis added to this deceleration. Investments are undermined by uncertainty, low demand and tighter credit conditions. Many of the structural reforms designed to revive productivity that were promised by policy-makers did not materialize.

Governments must better anticipate the unintended consequences of technological integration and implement complementary social policies that support populations through the Four Industrial Revolution. Economies with strong innovation capability must improve their talent base and the functioning of their labour markets.

Adaption is critical. We need a well-functioning labour market that protects workers, not jobs. Advanced economies needto develop their skills base and tackle rigidities in their labour markets. As innovation capacity grows, emerging economies need to strengthen their skills andlabour market to minimize the risks of negative social spillovers.

Sustainable economic growth remains the surest route out of poverty and a core driverof human development. For the past decade,growth has been weak and remains belowpotential in most developing countries, seriously hampering progress on several ofthe UN's 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The world is not on track to meet any of theSDGS. Least developed countries have missed the target of 7 percent growth every year since 2015. Extreme poverty reduction is decelerating. 3.4 billion people - or 46 percent of the world's population - lived on less than US$5, 50 a day and struggled to meet basic needs. After years of steady decline, hunger has increased and now affects 826 million up from 784 million in 2015. A total of 20 percentof Africals population is undernourished. The "zero hunger" target will almost certainly bemissed.

英译汉(2)主题:番茄天蛾(社会上错误信息的传播)

In the mid-1800s a caterpillar, the size of a human finger, began spreading across the northeastern U.S. This appearance of the tomato hornworm was followed by terrifying reports of fatal poisonings and aggressive behavior towards people. In July 1869 newspapers across the region posted warnings about the insect, reporting that a girlhad died after a run-in with the creature. Thatfall a local newspaper printed an account froma doctor. The physician warned that the caterpillar was "as poisonous as a rattlesnake" and said he knew of three deathslinked to its venom.

Although the hornworm is a voracious eaterthat can strip a tomato plant in a matter ofdays, it is, in fact, harmless to humans. Entomologists had known the insect to be innocuous for decades, and his claims were widely mocked by experts. So why did the rumors persist even though the truth was readily available? People are social learners. We develop most of our beliefs from the testimony of trusted others such as our teachers, parents and friends. This social transmission of knowledge is at the heart of culture and science. But as the tomato hornworm story shows us, our ability has a gaping vulnerability: sometimes the ideas wespread are wrong.

Over the past five years the ways in which the social transmission of knowledge can fail us have come into sharp falls. Misinformation (错误信息) shared on social media has fueled an epidemic of false belief. The same basic mechanisms that spread fear about the tomato hornworm have now intensified - and, in some cases, led to - a profound public mistrust of basic societal institution.

“Misinformation” may seem like a misnomer false beliefs are initially driven by acts of disinformation (虚假信息), which are deliberately deceptive and intended to cause harm. But part of what makes disinformation so effective in an age of social media is the fact that people who are exposed to it share it widely among friends and peers who trust them, with no intention of misleading anyone. Social media transforms disinformation intomisinformation.

Many social scientists have tried to understand how false beliefs persist by modeling the spread of ideas as a contagion. In a contagion model, ideas are like viruses that go from mind to mind. You start with a representing individuals, and edges, which represent social connections. You seed an idea in one “mind" and see how it spreads.

汉译英(1)主题:新冠肺炎疫情

2019年12月,发现了一批聚集性肺炎病例。1月30日,世界卫生组织将此疫情列为国际关注的突发公共卫生事情(PHEIC) 。

面对疫情,专家经考察研究,达成几点共识。首先,它是一种新的冠状病毒。其次,新冠肺炎有家庭聚集性的特点;人群普遍易感染,但多数患者是轻症,可以康复。第三,它的传播力高于SARS,因有的患者无症状或轻症,新冠肺炎隐匿性强。第四,目前尚无特效药和疫苗。

面对疫情,中国采取了严格、彻底、科学、精准的防控措施,打响了一场抗疫人民战争。种研人员甄别病原体、研究诊治方案、研发抗病毒疫苗。火神山、雷神山医院拔地而起,方舱医院一-所所开放,全国各地的医护人员和部队人员紧急结奔赴“抗疫战场”,为病人提供紧急救治。随着一批批轻症患者治愈出院,14所方舱医院陆续关舱。

疫情没有国界,是人类面临的共同挑战。中国支持世卫组织发挥引领作用,与国际社会共同抗疫,为完善全球卫生治理做出积极贡献。

汉译英(2)主题:中国农业发展(生猪肉等粮食供应)

农业要保持粮食供应。从供给数量看,2019年我国粮食产量再创新高,棉油糖生产稳定,果菜茶供应充足,但是公众关注生猪供给。受非洲猪瘟等因素影响,今年生猪产能下降较多。一场生猪稳产供保行动在全国各地展开,政府部门从财政支持,用地保障、金融保险等方面持续发力。目前生猪生产已出现回暖,猪肉供应将有所增加。同时,禽肉生产增加较多,牛羊肉生产形式好,肉类供应有保障。

此外,供给的质量和效益也日益提高,品种结构调优。大豆面积增加了92万公顷。各地积极发展优质稻谷、小麦、大豆、油菜、高产高糖甘蔗等。不少地方推进适应性种植,适当调减非适应区种植,东北寒冷地区和南方重金属污染区水稻调减20万公顷,小麦调减20万公顷。

2019年,国家在175个县开展有机肥替代化肥,在150个县开展果菜茶全程防控试点。目前,病虫绿色防控面积超过5300万公顷,化肥用量连续3年实现负增长。经过多年的探索实践,耕地轮作休耕试点省份已由9个增加到17个,试点面积由40万公顷扩大到200万公顷。试点区域耕地质量稳步向好,生态环境得到改善,提升了稻米、小麦等的竞争力。

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